As there is little native forest in Ireland, hedgerows are an important substitute for woodland edge habitat. Most hedgerows originate from planting and typically form field or property boundaries. They commonly support many native and non-native trees and shrubs including ash, hazel, beech, elder and willow, some of which may occur as scattered tall trees. Hedgerows also frequently contain climbing plants such as ivy and honeysuckle. They host a wide range of insect, bird and mammal species and provide networks within which animals can move in safety from one habitat to another. The most significant threats to hedgerows include inappropriate management and clearance of hedgerows for development of land and agricultural expansion.